Below, I list books and papers that I have enjoyed reading and impacted my scientific career. I considered them foundational to the discipline of ecology and conservation of biodiversity (and some others). Each of them represent novel ideas and advances, and thus, valuable “food for thought” to invest some time reading them. Although these lists are by no means comprehensive, I made these readings available as a resource for others. In most cases, if you hover with your cursor over the titles, you will be able to access the papers and often the books. Enjoy the readings!

​​​BOOKS (hover on the titles to access the link)

Boitani, L. & T.K. Fuller (eds.). 2000. Research techniques in animal ecology: Controversies and consequences. Columbia University Press, New York.

Carson, R. 1962. Silent spring. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

​Craighead, J.J. & F.C. Craighead. 1956. Hawks, owls, and wildlife. Dover, New York.

​Curio, E. 2012. The ethology of predation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

​Darwin, C. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. A. Appleton and Company, New York.

​Darwin, C. 1909. The voyage of the Beagle. P.F. Collier & Son Company, New York.

Dawkins, R. 1989. The selfish gene. Oxford University Press, New York.

​Elton, C.S. 2001 (1927). Animal ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Feinsinger, P. 2001. Designing field studies for biodiversity conservation. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

​Frankl, V.E. 1995. Man’s search for meaning. Blackstone Publishing.

​Gleick, J. 1987. Chaos. Penguin Books.

​Hanski, I. 1999. Metapopulation ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

​Kuhn, T. S. 1990. The structure of scientific revolutions. Second ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

​Lack, D. 1954. The natural regulation of animal numbers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

​Leackey, R.E. & R. Lewin. 1978. Origins.  Dutton Books, New York.

​Leopold, A. 2020 (1949). A sand county almanac and sketches here and there. Oxford University Press, New York.

​Lorenz, K. 1966. On aggression. Methuen and Co. Ltd, London.

​Louv, R. 2005. Last child in the woods: saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Press, Chapel Hill.

​MacArthur, R.H. & E.O. Wilson. 2001 (1967). The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

​McCullough, D.R. 1996. Metapopulations and wildlife conservation. Island Press, Washington, D,C.

​Morris, D. 1967. The naked ape: a zoologist’s study of the human animal. Dell Publishing, New York.
 Perez Velasquez, J.L. 2019. The rise of the scientist-bureaucrat: survival guide for researchers in the 21st century. Springer, New York.

​Pickett, S.T., C.G. Jones & J. Kolasa. 2007. Ecological understanding: the nature of theory and the theory of nature. Academic Press, Boston.
 Popper, K.R. 1985. Popper selections. Princeton University Press. Princeton.

​Real, L.A. & J.H. Brown. 2012 (1991). Foundations of ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

​Richardson, D.M. 2011. Fifty years of invasion ecology: the legacy of Charles Elton. Wiley-Blackwell.

​Sagarin, R. & A. Pauchard. 2012. Observation and ecology: broadening the scope of science to understand a complex world. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

​Samson, F.B. & F.L. Knopf (eds.). 1996. Prairie conservation: preserving North America’s most endangered ecosystem. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

​Simpson, G.G. 1983. Splendid isolation: the curious history of South American mammals. Yale University Press. (evolution in isolation)

​Strong, D.R., D. Simberloff, L.G. Abele & A.B. Thistle. 1984. Ecological communities: Conceptual issues and the evidence. Princeton University Press, Princeton. (null models)

Soulé, M.E. & B.A. Wilcox. 1980. Conservation biology: An evolutionary-ecological perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

Soulé, M. E. 1986. Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

​Therborgh, J. & J. Estes. (ed.). 2009. Trophic cascades. Island Press, Washington, D.C. (top predators)

​Wiens, J.A., M.R. Ross, M.G. Turner & D. Mladenoff. 2006. Foundation papers in landscape ecology. Columbia University Press, New York.

​Wilson, E.O. 2013. Letters to a young scientist. Norton & Company, New York.

PAPERS (hover on the titles to access the link)

​Anderson, J.G.T. 2017. Why ecology needs natural historyAmerican Scientist 105: 290-297.

​Bartholomew, G.A. 1986. The role of natural history in contemporary biology. BioScience 36: 324-329.

​Brown, J.H. 1971. Mammals on mountaintops: nonequilibrium insular biogeography. American Naturalist 105: 467-478. (islands as model systems)

Brown, J.S., J.W. Laundré & M. Gurung. 1999. The ecology of fear: optimal foraging, game theory, and trophic interactionsJournal of Mammalogy 80: 385-399. (non-lethal effects)

​Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63: 215-244.

Charnov, E., G. Orians & K. Hyatt. 1975. Ecological implications of resource depression. American Naturalist 110: 247-259. (predator/prey behavior and foraging strategies)

Chamberlain, T.C. 1965. The method of multiple working hypothesis. Science 148: 754-759.

​Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton & M. Van Den Belt. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capitalNature 387: 253-260.

​Crooks, K. & M. Soulé. 1999. Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented systemNature 400: 563-566.

​Dayton, P.K. 2003. The importance of the natural sciences to conservation. American Naturalist 162: 1-13.

​Errington, P.L. 1945. Some contributions of a fifteen-year study of the northern bobwhite to a knowledge of population phenomenaEcological Monographs 15: 1-34.

​Errington, P.L. 1946. Predation and vertebrate populations. Quarterly Review in Biology 21: 221-245. (surplus killing, compensatory mortality, etc.)

​Fahrig, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34: 487-515.

​Greene, H.W. 1986. Natural history and evolutionary biology. Pp. 99-108 in Predator–prey relationships: perspectives and approaches from the study of lower vertebrates (Feder, M.E. & G.V. Lander, eds.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

​Grinnell, J. 1917. The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher. Auk 34: 427-433. (niche/habitat concept)

Hairston, N.G., F.E. Smith & L.B. Slobodkin. 1960. The community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94: 421-425 (Why is the world green?)

​Harding, G.J. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-1248. (open access resources)

​Hurlbert, S.H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54: 187-211. (research design)

​Hutchinson, G.E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium in Quantitative Biology 22: 415-427. (species diversity)

​Hutchinson, G.E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93: 145-159. (niche theory)

​Levin, S.A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943-1967.

​Levine, R.V. 1990. The pace of life. American Scientist 78: 450-459.

Lewins, R. 1966. The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist 54: 421-431.

​Lima, S.L. & L.M. Dill. 1990. Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 619-640.

​Lima, S.L. 1998. Nonlethal effects in the ecology of predator-prey interactions. BioScience 48: 25-34.

​MacArthur, R.H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern coniferous forestsEcology 39: 599-619. (niche partitioning and coexistence)

​Paine, R.T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65-75. (trophic cascades and field experiments in ecology)

​Paine, R.T. 1969. A note on trophic complexity and community stabilityAmerican Naturalist 103: 91-93. (keystone species)

​Pianka, E.R. 1970. On r- and K-Selection. American Naturalist 104: 592-597. (life history strategies)

​Platt, J.R. 1964. Strong inference. Science 146: 347-353.

​Pulliam, H.R. 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulationAmerican Naturalist 132: 652-661.

Ricketts, T.H. 2001. The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes. American Naturalist 158:87-99.

​Robinson, S.K., F.R. Thompson III, T.M. Donovan, D.R. Whitehead & J. Faaborg. 1995. Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds. Science 267:1987-1990. 

​Romesburg, C. 1981. Wildlife science: gaining reliable knowledgeJournal of Wildlife Management 45: 293-313. (the hypothetico-deductive method in ecology)

​Root, R.B. 1967. The niche exploitation pattern of the Blue-gray GnatcatcherEcological Monographs 37: 317-350. (guild concept)

​Schmidly. D.J. 2005. What it means to be a naturalist and the future of natural history at American universitiesJournal of Mammalogy  86: 449-456.

Schoener, T.W. 1974. Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185: 27-39. (coexistence and niche partitioning)

​Soga, M & K.J. Gaston. 2016. Extinction of experience: The loss of human-nature interactions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14: 94-101.

​Terborgh, J., L. Lopez, P. Nuñez, M. Rao, G. Shahabuddin, G. Orihuela, M. Riveros, R. Ascanio, G.H. Adler, T.D. Lambert & L. Balbas. 2001. Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science 294: 1923-1926.

​Tewksbury, J.J., J.G.T. Anderson, J.D. Bakker,  T.J. Billo, P.W. Dunwiddie, M.J. Groom, S.E. Hampton, S.G. Herman, D.J. Levey, N.J. Machnicki, C. Martínez del Rio, M.E. Power, K. Rowell, A.K. Salomon, L. Stacey, S.C. Trombulak, T.A. Wheeler. 2014. Natural History’s Place in Science and Society. BioScience 64: 300-310.

Terborgh, J., K. Feeley, M. Silman, P. Nuñez & B. Balukjian. 2006. Vegetation dynamics of predator-free land-bridge islandsJournal of Ecology 94: 253-263. (trophic cascades)

​Van Horne, B. 1983. Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality. Journal of Wildlife Management 47: 893-901. (density ≠ fitness)

Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco & J.M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494-499.

​White, L. 1967. The historical roots of our ecological crisis. Science 155: 1203-1207. (the Judeo-Christian religion is blamed)

​Wilcove, D.S. 1985. Nest predation in forest tracts and the decline of migratory songbirds. Ecology 66: 1211-1214. (habitat fragmentation, nest predation and bird decline)


​Below, I list web pages that I have found to be useful to use in the past, on field guides, books, databases and professional sites, as well as on photography.


Digital Observatory for Protected Areas

Guide to Statistical Analysis in Microbial Ecology

Gutenberg on-line books

Handbook of the Birds of the World

Handbook of the Mammals of the World

Lynx Edicions

Searchable Ornithological Literature (SORA)

World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas


Audubon Guide to North American Birds

Bioacoustics of mammals

Birds of Chile

Bryophyte Ecology by J.M. Glime

Cornell Lab All About Birds


e-bird Science

Guia de Campo de las Orquideas Chilenas


Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

Nature Mentoring

Neotropical Beetles by J.E. Barriga

Texas Frogs

Tree Climbing


Birds Eye Photography

Foto Naturaleza (Chile)

Photography Life

Most Popular Photos

Nature PBS

North American Nature Photography Association

Ken Rockwell (equipment review)


Chile Científico

Chile Indómito

Chile Travel (tourism)

Chile Wike (general information)

Chile’s Forest Service (National parks)

GoChile (tourism)

Visit Chile (tourism)

Isabel Allende (writer)

Gabriela Mistral (Poetry Nobel laurate)

Pablo Neruda (Poetry Nobel laurate)


Cool Pages. (geologic times of earth and evolution of life)

Diccionario de la Lengua Española

Units of Conversion

PathFinder Science


Texas Parks & Wildlife-Ecoregions.


Pianka, E.R.


American Ornithological Society (AOS)

American Society of Mammalogists (ASM)

British Ecological Society (BES)

British Ornithologist Union

Chilean Ecological Society

Chile’s Ornithologists’ Union (UNORCH, AvesChile)

Ecological Society of America (ESA)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IBPES)

International Association for Landscape Ecology

International Ornithologists’ Union (IOU)

Neotropical Ornithological Society (NOS)

Society for Conservation Biology (SCB)

The Wildlife Society (TWS)


International Union for Conservation of Nature

Urban Wildlife Information Network.

Urban Wildlife Institute (Chicago).

Urban Coyote Research (Texas).

Save the Wild Chinchilla

Scientists Warning